History Day award winner -- San Juan Island Pig War by Rebecca Smith

  • By Rebecca Smith, Canyon Park Junior High School, Bothell
  • Posted 5/17/2006
  • HistoryLink.org Essay 9966

Rebecca Smith, a 9th Grader at Canyon Park Junior High School, won First Prize in the 2006 Washington State History Day competition for Senior Historical Papers with this discussion of the San Juan Island Pig War. The "Pig War" was a standoff between the U.S. Army and the British Royal Navy that began in the summer of 1859. A marauding pig could easily have sparked war between the U.S. and Great Britain as both nations sought to occupy North America. Diplomacy prevailed and Prussian Kaiser Wilhelm I helped resolve the dispute. At HistoryLink.org, we are proud to sponsor History Day and to offer a special prize of $100 each for winning junior and senior division state final essays if they choose subjects in Washington state history. We will renew this award in the 2007 state History Day program.

Taking a Stand for Peace: How Diplomacy Stopped the San Juan Pig War

The 1859 Pig War of San Juan Island is remembered today as an ironic scuffle over a dead boar, but its roots ran deep and its implications extended far beyond the Pacific Northwest. When Lyman Cutler, a failed miner growing potatoes on San Juan, shot a pig belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company farm, he could not have envisioned that the ensuing conflict would last 12 years, nor that the German Kaiser would determine its final resolution. Though the rash actions of local officials almost brought the United States and Great Britain into a devastating war, the two powerful governments realized the importance of amity and stood for peace, marking a new era in Anglo-American relations.

The Pig War actually originated in the 1840s. Electrified by the ideal of Manifest Destiny, Americans looked west toward land brimming with potential. Presidential candidate James Knox Polk led them with his 1844 campaign slogan, "54-40' or fight," referring to the latitude line at the southern tip of Russian-controlled Alaska. Polk wanted all of Oregon Territory west of the Louisiana Purchase from the 42nd parallel (California's northern border) to the 54-40' line. His unrealistic claim did not survive, and in 1846 the Treaty of Oregon gave the northern area to Great Britain and the southern to the United States. The treaty stated that the line would run "westward along the said forty-ninth parallel of north latitude to the middle of the channel which separates the continent from Vancouver's Island, and thence southerly through the middle of the said channel, and of Fuca's Straits, to the Pacific Ocean."

However, the authors of the treaty did not possess "a sufficiently accurate knowledge of the geography & hydrography of the Region" and failed to specify through which channel the border was intended to run. What seemed a minor detail was essential -- if the border ran through the Haro Strait, the San Juan islands would be part of the United States, while if it ran through the Rosario Strait, they would belong to Britain. San Juan was strategically the "most important island in the Haro group" but despite multiple warnings, neither government chose to correct the treaty's ambiguity. The San Juan islands, a "remote frontier," seemed perhaps too small and far away to merit notice.

Though Anglo-American trade flourished, the two nations showed a propensity for political conflict. In addition to hard feelings from the Revolutionary War and War of 1812, the two nations vied for control in Central America, Texas, California, and the Queen Charlotte Islands. However, the 1850s saw a lull in Anglo-American conflict, owing to Britain's peaceful American policy. "Our foreign relations seem quite satisfactory," stated The New York Times. "Britain will not call to settle about the San Juan affair. ... There is not the slightest chance for a row for some years to come."

In the Northwest, the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) dominated British Columbia both politically and economically, occupying "the very best situations in the whole country for offensive and defensive operations, towns and villages." Its Fort Victoria, on Vancouver's Island, functioned as the social and economic center for British and Americans alike. Furthermore, James Douglas, governor of Vancouver Island and British Columbia, was formerly the company's chief factor. To the south, Washington Territory was established in 1853.

The first stand for San Juan and the beginning of tensions came in 1854, when James Douglas, eager to secure the islands as an extension of Vancouver, placed an HBC sheep farm, Belle Vue, on San Juan with Charles Griffin in charge. American officials, however, refused to let Douglas take San Juan without a fight. They included it in the new Whatcom County, attempting to collect taxes from the HBC farm and eventually kidnapping 34 rams as payment. Governor Douglas was uneasy, calling it "an exceedingly annoying affair."

Instead of pushing for a resolution, the two local governments contested for San Juan, trying to control it by acting as if there were no dispute. Douglas himself wrote that "any assumption on either side, of exclusive right to the disputed territory, would simply be a fruitless and mischievous waste of energy," but it appears that neither he nor Washington Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens realized that they were guilty of precisely that. Their inability to even consider opposing claims destroyed trust and set the stage for conflict.

By 1855, heightened tensions forced the federal government to notice San Juan. Knowing the disastrous consequences a war would bring but unwilling to cede the island, the governments sent orders to their officers to "abstain from all acts on the disputed grounds which are calculated to provoke any conflict, so far as it can be done without implying the concession to the authority ... of any exclusive right over the premises."

In 1858 the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush brought 30,000 American miners to British Columbia. Many of them abandoned their gold claims and settled in Victoria, blaming their failure on restrictions imposed by Douglas and the HBC. By 1859 several miners, still upset with the British, left Victoria and settled alongside Belle Vue Farm on San Juan.

The infamous event that would push both nations to the brink of war occurred on June 15, 1859, when Lyman Cutler, American farmer and former Fraser miner, found a Hudson's Bay boar rooting in his potato patch. He shot the pig. Later, Cutler went to Belle Vue farm manager Charles Griffin to apologize, but tempers flared. Griffin's view of the American squatters as "a pack of intruders" and Cutler's bitterness from the Fraser Gold Rush ensured that there could be no compromise. Both the American settlers and Belle Vue farm raised their flags in defiance.

The pig incident would not have escalated to an international conflict without the rash actions of American General William Selby Harney, Department of Oregon Commander. Harney, an arrogant and reckless leader who harbored a strong hatred of the British, heard of "the hog crap" on a routine inspection of the Puget Sound. "His patriotism was aroused" at what he saw as an "insult to [his] flag and ... an outrage upon the rights of [his] people."

In the first military stand for the island, Harney, eager for praise, ordered George E. Pickett to "directly ... establish [his] company ... on San Juan Island" on July 18. But even more disastrous than putting soldiers on a disputed island was putting Pickett in charge. Like Harney, Pickett was anxious for fame and overeager for action. Harney ensured trouble when he instructed Pickett to "resist all attempts at interference by the British ... by intimidation or force." Pickett boldly proclaimed the island American, threatening to "make a Bunker Hill of it" if the British tried to stop him.

Governor Douglas was equally to blame. Said by Americans "to be as ugly, nasty and mad as [Harney]," he regarded the general's actions as "a marked discourtesy" and clearly disrespected him: "What more could be expected of a man who has spent his lifetime warring with Indians?" Besides, Douglas was "dedicated to the idea that the British were the great civilizing influence in the world." In his ambition to protect British rights to San Juan, he disregarded his orders to appease the Americans and sent three war steamers to Griffin Bay, near the American camp.

By late July the situation was dangerous. Not only were there 50 American soldiers on San Juan and three British vessels turned broadside to the island, but citizens from both nations were restless. The British Colonist of Victoria as well as the British Columbia Legislature urged action against the Americans, while there were "1,000 American miners redy to tak Victoria when thay heard the first gun fired." Any bloodshed would undoubtedly result in war.

Harney especially needed a peaceful way out. In 1859 Pickett's company was ill-supplied and underpaid, and the frontier army as a whole was ragged after the Mexican War. Most importantly, tensions between the North and South were rising. In light of a potential civil war, America could not afford a conflict with the British.

That conflict almost became a reality when Douglas, aware of Harney's plans to reinforce Pickett on San Juan, ordered Captain Geoffrey Hornby to land on the island. Knowing that this would surely lead to a collision, Hornby disobeyed orders and refused to land. His stand for peace prevented an outbreak of battle.

On August 5 British Rear Admiral Lambert Baynes, who outranked Governor Douglas, arrived just in time to prevent a disaster. When told of the San Juan situation, he said to himself, "Tut, tut, no, no, the damn fools." He then reversed Douglas's orders to land on the island, saying "I wood rather shed tears then to shed one drop of blood."

General Harney, however, was still intent on forcing possession of San Juan. He sent Lieutenant Colonel Silas Casey with 450 more men to aid Pickett, further heightening tensions.

When President James Buchanan finally received word of the events on San Juan in September, he was shocked. He "had not anticipated that so decided a step would have been resorted to without instructions." Though preoccupied with conflicts in the South, he endeavored to preserve cordial relations with Britain, whose ministers requested that American citizens "be restrained ... from attempts to settle [the issue] by unauthorized acts of violence."

In the meantime, the American government sent General Winfield Scott to San Juan. A respected, "gallant old hero" famous for bringing peace to dangerous territorial conflicts, Scott "enjoy[ed] ... the greatest popularity with his countrymen." He worked diligently to win Governor Douglas' trust, and in January 1860 they agreed upon a joint military occupation of the island, with equal forces and rights. Though both nations still desired the island, the joint occupation represented not only the end of dangerous tensions but also a stand for peace.

Nevertheless, the final resolution would not be forthcoming. As soldiers from both countries idled on the island, drinking and trying to out-feast one another, the Civil War began on April 12, 1861. The U.S. postponed all San Juan talks until 1867, when disputes over civil jurisdiction on the island revived the issue. However, tensions over Civil War claims would repeatedly delay San Juan negotiations until diplomats presented the Johnson-Clarendon Convention to the Senate in 1870. The convention covered several issues with Great Britain, including a procedure for arbitration of the San Juan question. The Senate, however, feared the possibility that the island would go to Britain, upsetting the political balance of power in the Northwest by giving the British command of the whole area. The Johnson-Clarendon Convention failed.

By 1871, the two nations agreed to try again. Britain's new prime minister, William Gladstone, advocated peace even at the expense of San Juan. Prussia's war with France, resulting in the formation of the powerful German Empire, had upset the balance of power in Europe and concerned Gladstone enough to make him want to settle all issues with America in order to concentrate on Europe.

On March 5, discussions began on still unsolved Civil War claims, Canadian fishing rights, and the San Juan boundary. With the former two easily settled, the commission finally agreed to outside arbitration. The internationally admired German Kaiser Wilhelm I was trusted with the arbitration, by virtue of Germany's political power and "the spirit of justice and impartiality which distinguishe[d] [him], the common friend of the two states." The Treaty of Washington included all three issues and was signed on May 8.

The Treaty of Washington was a turning point not only in the San Juan affair but also in international diplomacy. The new strategy of arbitration was "received with universal applause," with "all Germany and all Europe [as] witnesses." Furthermore, the treaty signaled "the restoration of friendship between the two powers." Accepting arbitration showed that both nations were willing to surrender their national honor and demonstrate to the world a stand for peace.

As early as June of 1871, British papers confessed that it was "thought that the San Juan case [would] probably go against England." Local officials complained that British diplomats had blundered in the arbitration process, and "Mr. Gladstone and his colleagues...[felt] the weight of public resentment." However, the general public received the decision with grace. Though one article depicted England as "looking round sulkily, with a strong desire to punch the head of any looker-on who laughs," Britain's colonial possessions dominated the globe, and San Juan likely seemed a small, albeit inconvenient, loss. There was no outright "expression of ill-feeling or resentment as to the United States."

On October 21, 1872, Wilhelm approved the arbitration commission's two-to-one decision in favor of the United States. The British camp on San Juan left quietly after a friendly farewell and the Americans raised their flag up a telegraph pole. British settlers on San Juan became American citizens to keep their land claims, and life continued as usual. The Pig War, as it would come to be known, had ended without ever beginning. U.S. Minister George Bancroft wrote that "the definitive, friendly settlement of the difference ... closed the long ... dangerous series of difficulties on the extent of their respective territories, and so for the first time in their histories open[ed] to the two countries the unobstructed way to agreement, good understanding and peace." It was "the last real, serious issue to arise between our two nations."

The Pig War's resolution set an international standard. Arbitration became an immediate trend in international diplomacy, and in 1903 Great Britain and America used the Pig War as a model for deciding the Alaska-British Columbia border. Anglo-American relations remained generally halcyon through the twentieth century, when Britain relied heavily on American funds and supplies during both world wars. The two nations remain close allies even today.

The Pig War is an essential part of history on three levels. First, it finally resolved the confusion over the San Juan boundary, giving the United States a strategic group of islands and preventing the British from becoming too powerful in the Puget Sound. Second, it could easily have become the third Anglo-American war in 100 years -- a war that would have devastated the economies of both countries and severed social and political ties. Most importantly, though, the Pig War and its amicable resolution proved to the world that two nations could solve even the most difficult issues through diplomacy and ushered in a new era of peaceful Anglo-American relations. What began as a nearly violent stand for a tiny island became a pivotal stand for peace.





Great Britain. Foreign Office. "Correspondence." 25 Nov. 1872. FO414/14.

This collection of correspondence with British officials gave insight into the policies of the British government during the Pig War.

---. ---. Correspondence Respecting the Negotiations with the United States Government on the Question of thee Alabama and British Claims, Naturalization, and the San Juan Water Boundary. London: Harrison and Sons, 1869.

A published compilation of letters about Anglo-American issues in the late 1860s, held in the University of Washington Special Collections, this document provided essential information Anglo-American relations and the issues that impeded San Juan negotiations.

Howard, Jacob M. Cong. Senate. Speech of Hon. Jacob M. Howard. Washington: F. & J. Rives & G. A. Bailey, 1870. UW MicNews M-2501 no. 15254: fiche 1, grids 2-13.

Howard's speech outlines the United States' arguments on why the border should run through Haro Strait. This allowed me to better understand the arbitration.

Map Showing the Line of Boundary Between the United States & British Possessions. Map. Washington: GPO, 1868.

Held at the University of Washington, this map shows San Juan Islands and surroundings, along with the proposed boundary lines and depths of the Haro and Rosario straits. I used it in my appendix to give a visual of the area, islands and boundary lines.

United States and Great Britain. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty. 19 Apr. 1850. The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Collection of treaties. 19 Nov. 2005 .

The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty was between United States and Great Britain regarding usage of land in Central America, which I used for political context and an example of Anglo-American relations in the 1850s.

United States. Engineering Office. U.S. Military Reservations on San Juan and Shaw Islands. Surveyed under the direction of Major N. Michler. 23 Aug. 1875. National Archives Pacific Alaska Region, Seattle.

This is a large map of the military camps and topography of San Juan, which gave details as to the settlement and fortification of the island.

United States. General Services Administration. National Archives and Records Service. Despatches from US Ministers to the German States and Germany 1799-1906. Washington: National Archives Microfilm Publications, 1953. M22, roll 19. Vol. 1 July 28, 1871- Feb. 29, 1872. National Archives Pacific Alaska Region, Seattle.

The Pacific Alaska branch of NARA holds this compilation of all George Bancroft's letters to the Secretary of State from Germany. It gave unique, essential information on the arbitration process and several quotes.

---. ---. ---. Letters Received by the Office of Adjutant General 1861-70. Washington: National Archives Microfilm Publications, 1963. M619, roll 660. National Archives Pacific Alaska Region, Seattle.

The Pacific Alaska branch of NARA holds this group of letters, one section of which concerns jurisdiction on the island as well as the joint occupation settlement. These letters provided information not mentioned elsewhere.

---. ---. ---. Notes from the British Legation in the United States to the Department of State 1791-1906. Washington: National Archives Microfilm Publications, 1968. M50, roll T-38. Vol. 38, Jan. 6, 1859- Sep. 23, 1859. National Archives Pacific Alaska Region, Seattle.

The Pacific Alaska branch of NARA holds this compilation of all letters sent from British ministers in Washington, D.C. to the Department of State. It was extremely useful in understanding the conflict as coming from the British view and provided several quotes.

---. Cong. House. Correspondence with General Harney. 36th Cong., 1st sess. Ex. Doc. 98. Washington: GPO, 1868.

Harney's correspondence, both prior to and during the Pig War, provided insight into the General's character and his pivotal role in the San Juan dispute.

---. ---. ---. Letter from the Secretary of State: Communicating, in Compliance with a Resolution of the House of Representatives, Correspondence with General Harney, Relating to Affairs in the Department of Oregon. 36th Cong., 1st sess. Ex. Doc. 10. Washington: GPO, 1860.

These letters mainly concern other affairs at the time of the Pig War, giving insight into the state of the Frontier Army and Harney's leadership.

---. ---. ---. Memorial of the Legislature of Washington Territory, Relative to the Condition of Citizens of the United States Residing on San Juan Island. 40th Cong., 2nd sess. Misc. Doc. 79. Washington: GPO, 1869.

This document discusses the issues in civil jurisdiction on San Juan during the joint military occupation. I used it to understand how the San Juan issue was revived in 1867.

---. ---. ---. Northwest Boundary Commission. Message from the President of the United States: Concerning the Northwest Boundary Commission, February 13, 1869. 40th Cong., 3rd sess. Ex. Doc. 86. Washington: GPO, 1869.

This document is the formal report of the Northwest Boundary Commission. Understanding of the commission was essential to the development of analysis because it was an early (and failed) attempt at peaceful resolution.

---. ---. Senate. Message of the President of the United States: Communicating, in Compliance, with a Resolution of the Senate of December 18, 1867, Information in Relation to the Occupation of the Island of San Juan, in Puget Sound. Signed Andrew Johnson. 40th Cong., 2nd sess. Ex. Doc. 29. Washington: GPO, 1868.

This lengthy compilation of correspondence during the Pig War was essential to my research, providing several quotes and giving a first-hand account of almost every major event.

---. ---. Senate. Message of the President of the United States: in Compliance with a Resolution of the Senate of the 9th Instant, the Correspondence of Lieutenant General Scott, in Reference to the Island of San Juan, of Brigadier General Harney, in Command of the Department of Oregon. 36th Cong., 1st sess. Ex. Doc. 10. Washington: GPO, 1860.

A compilation of correspondence of General Scott and General Harney, this document gives an account of how the joint occupation was settled upon.

---. The National Guard, State of Washington. Collection of Official Documents on the San Juan Imbroglio. Olympia: n.p., n.d. RG979.733.

This extensive collection of correspondence, held at the Washington State archives, provided many important ideas and quotes for my paper, including the opening quote rom Colonel Silas Casey. (The material in this document is only partially numbered.)


Griffin, Charles. "Belle Vue Farm Post-Journal, 1854-61." Transcription. San Juan Island National Historical Park, Friday Harbor, WA.

Charles Griffin's journal records all the happenings on Belle Vue Farm during the time of the Pig War, including his initial response to the shooting. This provided valuable insight into Griffin and his (and Belle Vue Farm's) role in the Pig War.

Peck, William A. Jr. The Pig War: Journal of William A. Peck, Jr. ed. C. Brewster Coulter. United States: C. Brewster Coulter, 1993.

Peck's journal is a vivid, personal account of the life that the soldiers on San Juan faced. I used one of Peck's opinions about Governor Douglas as a quote in my paper.


Ferry, Elisha P. Territorial Governor's Papers. Washington State Archives, Bellevue, WA.

Ferry was Governor of Washington State during the San Juan resolution. His papers include correspondence regarding the future of British citizens on San Juan, which I used in my paper.

McKay, Charles. Charles McKay Papers. ms. U of Washington, Seattle.

Charles McKay was the last living participant in the Pig War. The Papers are his hand-written account of "the hog crap," providing several colorful and unique memories of the Pig War's early development and two quotes.


"ALASKAN TREATY RATIFIED." New York Times 12 Feb. 1903: 3. ProQuest. King County Lib. System, Bothell, WA. 30 Mar. 2006 <http://www.umi.com/proquest>.

The Pig War was used as a model for the settlement of the Alaska-British Columbia treaty, which this article announces and summarizes. I used this as an example of the Pig War's lasting importance in my paper.

"THE BOUNDARY DIFFICULTY." New York Times 24 Sep. 1859: 1. ProQuest. King County Lib. System, Bothell, WA. 26 Mar. 2006 <http://www.umi.com/proquest>.

In this article, which included minutes from recent British Columbia Legislature sessions, I found information about their views that I have not seen elsewhere, and included in my paper.

Colton, G.H. "The Oregon Treaty." The American Review. Aug. 1846: 4.2. UW MicNews M-2501 no.. 16638: fiche 1, grid 2.

The Oregon Treaty and its ambiguity concerned The American Review enough to merit a full article on the treaty's implications in the Northwest and the possible problems it could cause. I used this article to understand the effects and opinions of the Oregon Treaty.

"ENGLAND." New York Times 8 Nov. 1872: 2. ProQuest. King County Lib. System, Bothell, WA. 26 Mar. 2006 <http://www.umi.com/proquest>.

This very long and valuable article basically outlined public opinion and foreign policy in London after losing the San Juan arbitration, giving a perfect picture of the British reaction to the decision and providing several vivid quotes.

"THE ENGLISH TREATY." New York Times 9 May 1871: 1. ProQuest. King County Lib. System, Bothell, WA. 26 Mar. 2006 <http://www.umi.com/proquest>.

Announcing and interpreting the Treaty of Washington, this article gave me the proper understanding of all that the Treaty covered.

"THE FISHERIES." New York Times 2 Jun. 1871: 5. ProQuest. King County Lib. System, Bothell, WA. 26 Mar. 2006 <http://www.umi.com/proquest>.

This article on Canadian affairs mentioned the new prospect of the British losing San Juan, and is thus the earliest evidence of that prediction I have seen, which I stated in my paper.

"Important from the North Pacific." New York Times 7 Sep. 1859: 2. ProQuest. King County Lib. System, Bothell, WA. 26 Mar. 2006 <http://www.umi.com/proquest>.

This article included a proclamation by Governor Douglas, which provided a quote for my paper.

"An International Court of Arbitration." New York Times 3 Jan. 1871. ProQuest. King County Lib. System, Bothell, WA. 26 Mar. 2006 <http://www.umi.com/proquest>.

As arbitration was being discussed for the San Juan decision in the Washington Treaty, this article (along with numerous follow-ups) sang the praises of arbitration, which supports the idea that arbitration was a new and popular tool for democracy forwarded in my paper.

"The San Juan Award." New York Times 25 Nov. 1872: 3. ProQuest. King County Lib. System, Bothell, WA. 26 Mar. 2006 <http://www.umi.com/proquest>.

This article voiced the outrage of some local British Columbia officials, who blamed the loss of San Juan on British diplomats. I used this information in my paper.

"San Juan Island." New York Times 26 Nov. 1859: 4. ProQuest. King County Lib. System, Bothell, WA. 26 Mar. 2006 .

General Scott's arrival in Washington State is vividly described in this article, which provided a quote showing the high regard in which the public held him.

"Trip to San Juan." Daily Alta California 23 Nov. 1859: 7. ms.

Actually the written draft of an article for the Daily Alta, this document details the colorful lifestyle that developed on San Juan during the joint occupation. I used it to verify the reported excessive drinking during the occupation.

"Washington Notes." New York Times 5 Oct. 1872: 2. ProQuest. King County Lib. System, Bothell, WA. 20 Nov. 2005 <http://www.umi.com/proquest>.

The Spanish government proposed arbitration for claims they had against America as the San Juan arbitration was coming to a close. This was an example of the new trend of arbitration that I discussed in my paper.

"What Caused the Premature Delivery of the President's Message?" New York Times 4 Jan. 1856: 4. ProQuest. King County Lib. System, Bothell, WA. 20 Nov. 2005 .

This article contains reference to a dispute with Britain over land in Central America, used as an example of political context in Anglo-American relations.

"What Troubles Are Now Ahead?" New York Times 14 Nov. 1854: 4. ProQuest. King County Lib. System, Bothell, WA. 20 Nov. 2005 http://www.umi.com/proquest>.

This is a commentary on American foreign relations in 1854, including those with Great Britain. I used it for knowledge of social and political context of the Pig War and for a quote.


Alden, James to Profr. A.D. Bache. 8 Aug. 1859. RG23, Vol. 14, Roll 208.

James Alden was surveying the Oregon coast and spoke with Pickett and Douglas. His letter relates Pickett's determination not to allow the British to win and Douglas' astonishment at the fact. It helped me understand the characters of Pickett and Douglas, as well as the events surrounding Hornby's refusal to land on San Juan.

Baynes to Hornby, 13 Aug. 1859. Photocopy from Provincial Archives.

In this letter, Baynes reversed Douglas' orders to Hornby to land on San Juan. This verified the account of the incident found in secondary sources.

DeCourcy to Hornby, 29 July 1859. Photocopy from Provincial Archives. American Camp National Historical Park, Friday Harbor, WA.

DeCourcy's orders to Hornby provided information on Hornby's refusal to land on San Juan.


Extent and Value of the Hudson's Bay Company in Oregon, South of Forty-Ninth Degree. n.p.: 1849.

A report of the Hudson's Bay Company possessions in the new Oregon Territory, this document provided a quote illustrating the company's influence in the Northwest.

The Fur Trade and the Hudson's Bay Company. n.p.: 1859. UW MicNews M-2301 no. 50620: fiche 1, grids 6-7.

This document explains the Hudson's Bay Company's economic dominance through involvement in the fur trade. I used it for a contextual understanding of the company's place in the Northwest.

Kennerly, C.B.R. Geographic Memoir of the Islands Between the Continent and Vancouver's Island in the Vicinity of the Fourty-Ninth Parallel of North Latitude. 18 Mar. 1859. ts (photocopy). San Juan National Historical Park, Friday Harbor, Washington.

Kennerly observed the affairs of Belle Vue Farm and the two camps in the early part of the joint occupation in the appendices of his memoir. His letters gave insight as to the conditions on San Juan during the joint occupation.



Ficken, Robert E. Personal interview. 20 Mar. 2006.

Mr. Ficken is author of Unsettled Boundaries: Fraser Gold and the British-American Northwest (see citation). He is also extremely knowledgeable on 19th century Anglo-American relations, and was able to explain to me how the Pig War played a role locally and internationally in politics and economics.

Vouri, Michael P. Personal interview. 26 Jan. 2006.

Mr. Vouri is an accomplished Pig War historian and author of The Pig War: Standoff at Griffin Bay (see citation). He answered many difficult questions about social, political, and economic context and impacts of the Pig War, both locally and internationally; views and motives of important characters; and reasons for actions before and during the Pig War and subsequent diplomacy. He also allowed me to use his extensive files, in which I found many primary sources.


McConaghy, Dr. Lorraine. "Pig War Project." Email from Lorraine McConaghy. 20 Oct. 2005.

Dr. McConaghy is a historian who suggested I contact Mr. Vouri and gave me his email address.

Nelson, Sarah. "Pig War Research." Email from Sarah Nelson. 7 Dec. 2006. Sarah Nelson is an archivist at NARA's Pacific Alaska Region. She gave me a detailed list of sources to look for at the archives, which I later used on my visit.

Vouri, Michael P. "Question." Email from Michael P. Vouri. 30 Mar. 2006.

Mr. Vouri answered a question I had concerning information in several New York Times articles some time after I interviewed him.


United States. U.S. Department of the Interior. National Parks Service. San Juan National Historical Park. American Camp: A Historic Guided Walk. By Michael Vouri. Friday Harbor: n.p.:2004.

This pamphlet is meant for a self-guided tour around the American Camp and gives facts about camp life tied into the Pig War story. I used the pamphlet as my best secondary description of American camp life during the San Juan occupation.

---. ---. ---. ---. English Camp: A Historic Guided Walk. By Michael Vouri. Friday Harbor: n.p.: 2004.

This pamphlet is meant for a self-guided tour around the English Camp and gives facts about camp life tied into the Pig War story. I used the pamphlet as one of the few sources of information about British camp life.

Washington State. Military Dept. Field, Virgil F. The Official History of the Washington National Guard. n.d.

The American soldiers on San Juan were part of the National Guard, and this history gives not only the development of the guard but also of Washington Territory, which was essential information for the context section of my paper.


Bailey-Cummings, Jo and Al Cummings. San Juan: the Powder Key Island. Friday Harbor, WA: Beach Combers, Inc.: 1987.

This book had the most detailed account of the actual pig shooting and conditions for soldiers on San Juan I have seen, which allowed me to fully analyze the buildup of tensions. I also learned of what happened to the American troops on San Juan after the Pig War.

Black, Jeremy, ed. World History Atlas. 2nd ed. London: Dorling Kindersley Ltd., 2005.

In the latter half of the 19th century, England's colonial expansion was at its height. This atlas clearly demonstrated that in a visual manner, which allowed me to further analyze San Juan's importance in my paper.

Burke, Kathleen. "War and Anglo-American Financial Relations in the Twentieth Century." In Anglo-American Attitudes: from Revolution to Partnership, ed. Fred M. Leventhal and Ronald Quinault. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Co., 2000.

Burke's chapter in this book gave vital information on the development of Anglo-American relations since the Pig War, which I used to show the Pig War's significance in my paper.

Ficken, Robert E. Unsettled Boundaries: Fraser Gold and the British-American Northwest. Pullman, WA: Washington State U Press, 2003.

The more I researched the Fraser Gold Rush, the more I discovered its connection to the Pig War, and this book allowed me to finally make that connection complete. I used it in my paper and also for a broader understanding of the Northwest at the time of the Pig War.

Huth, Paul K. Standing Your Ground: Territorial Disputes and International Conflicts. United States: Michigan Press, 1996.

This book is a highly technical study on the causes and effects of territorial disputes, which I used to put the Pig War in context of the larger topic of boundary disputes in general.

Kaufmann, Scott. The Pig War: the United States, Britain, and the Balance of Power in the Northwest, 1846-72. New York: Lexington Books, 2004.

Kaufmann fills the gaps left by other Pig War accounts by providing highly detailed analysis on the long process of coming to a diplomatic resolution. This provided essential information for my paper.

LaFeber, Walter. The Cambridge History of American Foreign Relations, Vol. II: The American Search for Opportunity, 1865-1913. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

This book discusses American foreign policy and relations, including those with Great Britain, during the time the San Juan boundary was being debated. It helped me put my findings about Pig War diplomacy into the larger view of Anglo-American relations.

Lambert, David A. The Pacific Northwest: Past, Present and Future. East Wenatchee, WA: Directed Media, Inc., 1993.

I used this textbook, which includes a very detailed account of Pacific Northwest exploration and claims, to understand the background of the competing U.S. and British claims.

LeWarne, Charles P. Washington State. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 1986.

LeWarne concisely covers Manifest Destiny and James K. Polk's "54-40 or Fight!" slogan and its relation to United States and Northwest development in the mid-1800s, providing essential contextual facts for my paper.

Murray, Keith. The Pig War. Tacoma, WA: Washington Historical Society, 1968.

Murray gives analysis of the Treaty of Washington in light of international developments in Europe, providing additional understanding needed to fill the gap left by many secondary sources.

Richardson, David. Pig War Islands. Victoria, BC: Morris Printing Co. Ltd., 1971.

Richarson's book covers not only the Pig War but the development of San Juan afterwards, and I used it to understand the Pig War's lasting effects on San Juan, among other things.

Viscount, Samuel. "Anglo-American Relations: a Survey." In Bridging the Atlantic: Anglo-American Fellowship as the Way to World Peace: a Survey from Both Sides, ed. Philip Gibbs. New York: Hutchinson & Co. Ltd., 1943.

World War II was an important era in twentieth century Anglo-American relations, and this chapter was written during it. It provided unique insight into relations as they had changed from the Pig War to World War II.

Vouri, Michael P. The Pig War: Standoff at Griffin Bay. Friday Harbor, WA: Griffin Bay Bookstore, 1999.

Vouri's highly detailed account of the Pig War, including context and focusing on the initial buildup of tensions in the 1850s and military and political development in 1859, was my main source for preparing to conduct further research and provided several key facts.


"Fraser Canyon Gold Rush." Wikipedia. 2 Nov. 2005. 15 Nov. 2005 .

This fairly detailed article on the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush provided information necessary for the formulation of my idea that the gold rush played a significant role in the actions of Lyman Cutler and other Americans on San Juan.

Friedman, S. Morgan. "The Inflation Calculator." The Homepage du jour of S. Morgan Friedman. 11 Dec. 2000. 25 Nov. 2005 .

I used Morgan's recognized inflation calculator to compare values found in primary sources and thereby understand their significance.


Franklin, Deborah. "Boar War." Smithsonian June 2005, Vol. 36, Iss. 3: 64-70. ProQuest. King County Lib. System, Bothell, WA. 9 Nov. 2005 .

This article includes brief overview of the Pig War and analysis on causes, which I used for a deeper understanding of the rise of tensions in 1859.


Borrit, Gabor S. "Civil War." World Book. 1987 ed.

The civil war played a huge role not only in Pig War negotiations, but in Anglo-American relations in general as well. This article was essential to my understanding of this and provided facts for my paper.

Hicks, John Donald. "Clayton-Bulwer Treaty." World Book. 1987 ed.

This article summarizes the causes and effects of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (see citation). I used to understand the conflict and the resulting condition of Anglo-American relations in the 1850s.

Pollock, James K. "Prussia." World Book. 1987 ed.

This article on the development of Prussia included information needed to understand how the new German Empire posed a large enough threat to Great Britain to move San Juan talks to finality.


Rodewall, Bud. Seasonal Ranger & VIP Reading File. n.d. San Juan Historical Museum, Friday Harbor, WA.

This document detailed procedures at both the American and English camps and provided information on the state of the army during the Pig War.

This bibliography Copyright 2006, Rebecca Smith.

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